Collaborative notes taken by paricipants of the DH Summer School Switzerland:
Tutorial/Workshop Session 2: Laurent Pugin & Claudio Bacciagaluppi: TEI and Musicology @yrochat + @xaentenza
[Note: Laurent Pugin & Claudio Bacciagaluppi are not from Bern University 🙂 Members of the Swiss RISM Office http://www.rism-ch.org/ ]
1) How is TEI applied to musicology and reseach?
2) MEI (correspondace of TEI, Music encoding instead of text encoding, I for initiative)
3) Short presentation of our interests
Introduction to TEI http://www.tei-c.org/index.xml
– Machine readable
– goal is encoding data along with metadata
– Possibilites of defining tags and linking to standardized ref. tags.
– no computer science skills required (but XML)
OxGarage conversion from text to TEI
then editing in Oxygen (30 day trial for free)
Presentation of projects
– E-Codices, from the University of Fribourg http://www.e-codices.unifr.ch/fr
- (In e-codices, the TEI Header is often bigger than the body because there is no transcription, but only metadata about the document)
- RISM : Historical music inventories 1500-1800
– In Mozart’s Words: http://letters.mozartways.com/ (correspondance of 1400 pieces)
– Carl-Maria-von-Weber-Gesamtausgabe (WeGA): http://www.weber-gesamtausgabe.de/de/Index (rendition in typography, XML, )
– Kapellmeisterbuch: A musical diary about what was played when http://d-lib.rism-ch.org/kapellmeisterbuch/
– Hofmeister XIX http://www.hofmeister.rhul.ac.uk/2008/index.html
Do you choose to make a database or make transcription in TEI?
Things change with semantic web. Still important to have a transcription of the source, see what was written, take different parameters into account.
COMPOSE —– WRITE
Music / Graphic notation / Neume notation / tablatrure / Scordatura / Score
WAV/AIFF MP3/ACC MIDI/Smoke **kern Music21 MusicXML/LilyPond
Samples Selected sample Events Music Symbols Music Symbols + Layout indication
MEI is the small sister project of TEI
XML-based music encoding
MusicXML (Michael Good, CodaMusic) >> Bought by Finale
– Interchange format for software applications (Finale, Sibelius)
– Deeply inspired by MuseData
IEEE 1599 (Universitá degli Studi di Milano)
– Designed to describe heterogrenous music contents comprehensively (linking between notation and audio)
CMME (Ted Dumitresco, Utrech University)
– encoding format for digital editions of Renaissance music
– Developped in conjunction with an edition software applciation
MEI (Perry Roland, University of Virginia)
– Deeply inspired by TEI
– Community-driven, modular and with focus on philosophy
– (hosted by Mainz academy)
Others: MusicML, MusiXML, MusiqueXML, Xmusic, etc. (“the biggest difficulty for these guys was to find names containing “music” and “xml””)
The Music Encoging Initiative: http://www.music-encoding.org
Why did become MEI it’s own community: music notation works in a different way as alphabet: symbols, rules (two notes grouped together with a b), etc.
Example of note encoding:
<note pname:”b” oct=”4″ dur=”4″ dots=”1″/> (un “si” noire pointée, troisième ligne, https://twitter.com/yrochat/status/350550335661670400)
Other example: https://twitter.com/xaentenza/status/350550597784715264
Multiple hierarchies https://twitter.com/yrochat/status/350550704701714432
The line between content and representation is difficult to draw
Multiple hierarchies (a general problem in XML) > Very common in music
Example and sound sample of Baude Codier’s music (Codex Chantilly)
Ars nova- Partout qu’on passe suis composé
The text of the song tells you how to read the notation
“Spiral galaxy” (George Crumb, 1972) spiral musical notation
Josquin des Prés (c. 1450/1455 – 27 August 1521) : black notation to significate death (“la déploration sur la mort d’Ockeghem” score and sound sample)
“If you want to encode these into something machine-readable, how do you do that ?”
Sometimes you have a notice made to help play the music. How to include that ?
Writing and representing MEI
The examples given (some pics on Twitter) were here to remember what is music notation. Now the workshop is moving to applied examples were the scores have been encoded into MEI.
The demo is impressive. You can compare different versions of the same score, and interact with the measures and notes and find which parts appear or don’t in the different versions.
The score is interactive. It’s svg format.
Is there web version? Some project exist (McGill ?)
Typical workflow https://twitter.com/yrochat/status/350556760353955840
OMR in Aruspix
MEI for orignal source encocing editing in Aruspix
MEI for critcal edition eencoding
Rendering music encoding on the Internet
There is no standard way for rending music on the net.
Plug-in for binary files
Plug-in for MusicXML files
Early music specific tools
Notefligh HTML5 score viewer
ABCJS parser, editor and reder for ABC (folksonsgs notation)
What makes music rendering conplex (a lot of layers to take into account !!! For example the beams http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beam_%28music%29 depend on the alignment of the notes which depend also on their duration, for example dots, sharps, etc.)
TEI SIG on music http://www.tei-c.org/Activities/SIG/Music/index.xml
MEI and the TEI Genetic Module
Search engine ?
Not one way of searching
Search the LIber Usualis (1961, 2000 pages)
Example : agnus dei http://ddmal.music.mcgill.ca/liber#type=pnames&query=edcdeee&result=1&p=157
Music NGram viewers http://www.peachnote.com/ (it doesn’t work with the pink panther !)